Java vs Python : Which is Best Programming Language?

Difference Between Java vs Python

Choosing a programming platform is an important decision for every business. Its strengths and weaknesses affect the website’s performance as well. Hence, businesses cannot take this responsibility lightly. Java and Python are two of the most popular modern languages preferred by coders across the globe. Easy comprehension, attractive features, and robust performance make these languages extremely preferable by business entities.

We understand that selecting the right programming language is a complex task for company management. We hope this post gives you enough information on both the options to assist you in the decision-making process.

Java vs Python Pros and Cons

What is Java?

This high-level coding language resembles C++ and is program-oriented in nature. Made with the intention of program reusability across mediums, it emerged as the perfect alternative for cross-platform implementation. Here are some reasons why using Java is awesome: –

Pros of Java

  • Platform independent
  • Simple to use
  • Offers rich APIs
  • Powerful open-source rapid development tools
  • Resource availability is easier (less training needed)

Cons of Java

  • Just-in-Time Compiler (JIT) relatively slows down the program.
  • Higher hardware costs to compensate for high memory and processing needs.
  • Doesn’t support the use of pointers.
  • Coders cannot control garbage collection because Java doesn’t offer to use delete(), free(), and other functions.

Learn More: Advantages of Java over the other programming languages

What is Python?

This dynamic, general-purpose language is ideal for Rapid Application Development because it comes with pre-existing structures and dynamic typing/binding. It also reduces the program maintenance cost significantly. Its interpreter and resource library are also freely available on the internet for coder’s convenience. Therefore, if you’re on a cash crunch and still want to build great software, Python is the right choice for you.

Pros of Python

  • Contains many third-party modules
  • Comprehensive support libraries
  • Provides open-source material and encourages community coding
  • Smaller learning curve
  • Contains user-friendly coding structures
  • Greater productivity and speed

Cons of Python

  • Relatively new across the net
  • Slower than its counterparts because it’s interpreted
  • Weaker in mobile computing and not applicable for app development
  • Dynamic nature which gives more errors during run-time
  • The inadequate database access layer
  • No commercial support

Learn More: Benefits of Python over the other programming languages

Difference Between Java and Python

Popularity

These two popular coding languages compete closely and fare among the top three contenders along with JavaScript. Before JavaScript launched, Java was so famous that JavaScript makers selected a name that resembled Java to promote the language. According to Github’s Octoverse, Java still remains ahead of Python by occupying the second position.

However, a Stackoverflow survey claims that Python has dethroned C# and became the fastest growing language in 2018. Close to 45 percent of coders back Java, whereas 39 percent of programmers back Python. Though Java’s still winning, the gap is shrinking rapidly! 

Performance

It’s difficult to compare Java vs. Python performance because languages don’t have speed. However, if you still want to measure efficiency, you need to select particular implementations to draw a fair comparison. In general, performance depends not only on the language’s execution speed but also on code implementation and third-party library’s performance.

Tiobe Index states that Java performs better than Python with 15.10 percent. Python ranks the third-highest performing programming language, with 9.09 percent, based on performance, coding capacities, and popularity.

Syntax

Due to its dynamic nature, Python accepts variable inputs at run-time. This real-time input makes the language an easy one to use and learn. It also doesn’t adhere to specific structuring guidelines like indentation rules or closing brackets. However, Java is the opposite of Python in this matter. It’s very semantically rigid and focuses on typing variables in advance. It also fails to run if any anomaly pops up in the code due to the syntax. Java needs programmers to code within blocks or methods that lie within the curly braces.

Machine Learning

Since Python has a simple syntax, people with different backgrounds also explored various machine learning possibilities in it comfortably. That’s why Python began machine learning adaptations across several organizations. Its history in creating firm-specific machine learning capabilities contribute to its vast resource libraries. New coders can access and build on these resources according to their requirements in the future.

Java is also a popular machine learning integration option. It’s used by large-scale enterprises because it is easy to debug and use. Coders can refer to libraries like Weka, Mallet, MOA, and Deeplearning4j to develop diverse machine learning capabilities. However, Python is an obvious choice for machine learning applications.

Tabular Comparison of Java vs Python

Are you still confused? Refer to the detailed comparison sheet below to make the final choice!

Criteria Java Python
Compilation  Compiled Language Interpreted Language
Static/Dynamic? Statically typed Dynamically typed
String Operations Limited Extensive
Learning Curve Slightly complex  Relatively easier
Inheritance Partial multiple inheritances through interfaces Single and Multiple inheritances allowed
Indentation Rules Uses curly braces to define blocks Uses indentation to define code blocks
Speed Slower than Python Faster than Java
Portability Can run on all devices that have Java Virtual Machine (JVM) Needs interpreter installation before it can run. Less portable than Java.
Read File Needs 10 code lines simply to read a file in Java Need 2 lines to read a file
Architecture JVM facilitates code conversion into bytecode Interpreter converts source code to machine-independent bytecode
Backend Framework Spring or Blade Django, Flask
Best used for Desktop graphical interface apps, embedded systems, web applications Mathematical computing, machine learning apps 
Machine Learning Libraries Weka, MOA, Mallet Tensorflow, PyTorch
Examples of famous companies using this tech Airbnb, Netflix, Instagram Uber, Dropbox
Database Support Stable Weak
Tiobe Rank 1 3

Conclusion

For beginners, Python is the best choice because of its intuitive nature and simple syntax. Additionally, its open-source nature promotes new tools and enhances coding standards. Alternatively, you can use Java to write code, reuse it multiple times, and run software seamlessly across multiple platforms. Your ultimate decision should depend on the much-needed features and project development costs. So, assess your needs carefully and look at the pros and cons of each language to make a final decision. After you make a decision, you can approach an experienced IT service provider to help you navigate all your software needs.

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