What is Order Fulfillment? 8 Essential Steps Involved in the Process
 Order Management

What is Order Fulfillment? 8 Essential Steps Involved in the Process

Simmons Bennett
Simmons Bennett
March 5, 2024
Last updated on:

March 5, 2024


Read time: 5 mins

Order fulfillment is a business process of receiving, processing, and delivering orders to customers. It involves managing inventory, picking and packing items, and coordinating shipping to ensure products reach customers in a timely manner. Businesses need effective order fulfillment for customer satisfaction, as it impacts the speed and accuracy of product delivery.

A well-executed fulfillment process meets customer expectations, leading to positive experiences and repeat business. Additionally, efficient order fulfillment contributes to improved inventory management, reducing the risk of overstock or stockouts, optimizing operational costs, and enhancing overall business productivity and competitiveness in the market.

Such an efficient order fulfillment requires a structured process. This blog explores the concept of order fulfillment in businesses and the process steps involved in it.

Insider Intelligence forecasts retail ecommerce sales to reach $7.391 trillion in 2025, comprising nearly half of the approximately $16 trillion total retail sales recorded in 2012.

Understanding Order Fulfillment

Order fulfillment is known as the entire process from receiving an order to delivering the requested products or services to the customer. It involves various steps such as order processing, inventory management, picking and packing, and shipping.

Firstly, when a customer places an order online or through other channels, the order is received and recorded by the seller's system. Then, the inventory management system checks the availability of the ordered items in the warehouse. If the items are available, the picking process begins when workers gather the items from their respective locations in the warehouse.

After the items are picked, they are packed securely to ensure safe transportation. Packing also involves labeling the packages with shipping addresses and relevant information. Once packed, the items are handed over to the designated shipping carrier for delivery to the customer's address.

Order Fulfillment Process in 8 Steps

The order fulfillment process involves a series of steps to ensure that every customer's order is processed and delivered accurately and efficiently. The steps may vary depending on the business model and industry, but here is a general outline of the order fulfillment process:

1. Receiving Inventory

Receiving inventory is the crucial initial step in the order fulfillment process. This involves physically accepting and documenting incoming goods. It ensures accurate stock levels, enabling businesses to meet customer demands promptly.

Efficient receiving is vital for inventory accuracy and timely order fulfillment. It provides a real-time snapshot of available products, preventing overstock or stockouts. Accurate inventory data is essential for fulfilling customer orders promptly, minimizing backorders, and enhancing customer satisfaction.

The process typically involves inspection, verification, and updating inventory records. Modern technology, such as barcode scanning and RFID systems, streamlines receiving by automating data entry. This speeds up the process and reduces the risk of errors, ensuring a seamless and error-free order fulfillment journey.

Order Fulfillment Statistics
Image 1 - Order Fulfillment Statistics

2. Storing Inventory

Storing inventory is the second crucial step in the order fulfillment process. After receiving goods, proper storage ensures efficient organization and accessibility. It is essential for maintaining inventory accuracy and expediting order picking and packing.

An organized storage system optimizes warehouse space, reducing the time and effort required to locate products. This step involves strategically placing items based on factors like size, demand frequency, and expiration dates. Implementing a well-designed storage system enhances overall warehouse efficiency.

Modern warehouse management systems use technology to automate and optimize inventory storage. These systems often incorporate algorithms to determine the optimal placement of items, ensuring faster retrieval during the order fulfillment process. Effective storage saves time and minimizes the risk of errors, contributing to a streamlined and reliable order fulfillment workflow.

What is the primary role of inventory management in order fulfillment?

Inventory management is key for efficient order fulfillment. It ensures optimal stock levels, preventing stockouts or overstock situations. By maintaining accurate inventory records, businesses enhance order accuracy, minimize delays, and improve customer satisfaction. Effectively managing inventory aligns supply with demand, streamlining the order fulfillment process for enhanced operational performance.

Read our blog, ‘7 Proven Inventory Management Techniques for Business Success,’ to learn the best practices for inventory management.

3. Order Processing

Order processing marks the third crucial phase in the order fulfillment journey. Once inventory is received and stored, the focus shifts to fulfilling customer requests accurately and swiftly. This step involves validating orders, updating inventory levels, and preparing items for shipment.

Efficient order processing begins with order verification, where the system ensures the accuracy of customer details, product selection, and payment information. This step is very essential for preventing errors that could lead to shipping delays or incorrect deliveries. Once verified, the order information is updated in the inventory system, reflecting the latest stock levels.

Technological advancements, such as order management software and automated order processing systems, play a pivotal role in streamlining this step. These tools enhance accuracy, speed, and transparency in order processing.

Key Order Fulfillment Metrics
Image 2 - Key Order Fulfillment Metrics

4. Picking

Picking is an integral stage in the order fulfillment process, where items are selected from the storage location to fulfill specific customer orders. Efficient picking is crucial for minimizing errors, reducing fulfillment times, and meeting customer expectations for prompt delivery.

The process involves retrieving products based on the details provided in the order, often guided by technology such as handheld scanners or pick-to-light systems. Optimization of picking routes and methodologies is essential for enhancing productivity. Batch picking, where multiple orders are fulfilled simultaneously, is a common strategy to increase efficiency.

Technology-driven solutions, including warehouse management systems (WMS) and automated picking systems, contribute significantly to streamlining the picking process. These tools help in organizing and prioritizing orders, reducing the time and labor required for manual picking.

5. Packing

Packing constitutes the next step in the order fulfillment process, where selected items are carefully assembled, protected, and prepared for shipping to ensure they reach customers in pristine condition. This phase plays a crucial role in customer satisfaction and brand reputation.

During packing, attention to detail is paramount. Products must be securely placed in packaging materials that not only safeguard them during transit but also align with the brand's presentation standards. This step involves choosing the right-sized packaging, inserting any necessary documentation, and incorporating branding elements.

Efficient packing systems, including automated packaging machinery and barcode scanning for order verification, contribute to accuracy and speed. Additionally, implementing standardized packing processes helps minimize errors and ensures consistency across orders.

6. Shipping

Shipping is the next step in the order fulfillment process, where packed goods are dispatched to customers. This step involves coordinating with carriers, choosing appropriate shipping methods, and managing the logistics of transporting products from the warehouse to their destination.

Selecting the right shipping partners and services is crucial to ensure timely and cost-effective deliveries. Businesses may offer various shipping options, allowing customers to choose based on their preferences regarding speed and cost. Integration with shipping software facilitates real-time tracking and enhances visibility for both the business and the customer.

Efficiency in shipping contributes to customer satisfaction and loyalty. Streamlining the process involves optimizing packaging for dimensional weight, generating shipping labels, and coordinating with carriers for timely pickups. Leveraging technology for route optimization and order consolidation further reduces shipping costs and enhances overall operational efficiency. 

7. Delivery

Delivery, the seventh crucial step in the order fulfillment process, involves the final leg of the journey, ensuring that products reach the customers' doorstep. A well-coordinated delivery system is essential for providing a positive customer experience and solidifying brand trust.

Timely and reliable delivery is a key customer expectation. Businesses often collaborate with reputable delivery services or utilize their logistics network to cover the last mile efficiently. Real-time tracking systems and communication updates play a pivotal role in keeping customers informed about the status and estimated arrival time (ETA) of their orders.

Customer satisfaction is closely tied to the condition in which products arrive. Implementing careful handling procedures during the delivery phase helps prevent damage. In cases of specialized or high-value items, businesses may consider additional services like white-glove delivery to ensure a premium customer experience.

8. Returns Processing

Returns processing is the final stage in the order fulfillment process. It addresses the necessity of handling product returns efficiently and maintaining customer satisfaction. A streamlined returns process is crucial for businesses to address customer concerns, uphold brand reputation, and gather valuable insights for improvements.

Customers may initiate returns for various reasons, including product defects or dissatisfaction. Implementing a clear and customer-friendly return policy sets expectations and builds trust. Establishing a designated returns center or area within the warehouse facilitates the organized processing of returned items.

Upon receiving returned products, businesses typically inspect items to determine their condition and reason for return. Efficient returns processing involves updating inventory records, refunding or replacing items promptly, and communicating transparently with customers throughout the process. Technology such as return management software aids in automating and tracking returns, ensuring accuracy and speed.


Though it looks simple, order fulfillment poses multifaceted challenges for businesses. Coordinating inventory, processing orders promptly, and ensuring accurate shipments demand seamless logistics. The complexities increase with fluctuating demand, diverse product ranges, and global supply chains. Consequently, businesses often delegate this intricate process to third-party providers to overcome these hurdles. Third-party specialists enable companies to handle back-end tasks effectively, leverage advanced technologies, and benefit from economies of scale.

Invensis has more than 22 years of experience in fulfilling customer orders through our order management services. Our services include support in order shipping and logistics, inventory management, order processing, returns handling, and more.  By adopting industry-leading practices, Invensis remains a reliable partner for businesses seeking seamless order fulfillment solutions that align with evolving market demands.

Reach out to Invensis for tailored order fulfillment solutions that elevate your business!

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